This Week in History: Brigham Young was born in 1901


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With more than 13 million members on six continents, the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, commonly called the Mormon church, is one of the largest religious organizations in the world. But in 1901, when the future Mormon leader Brigham Young was born, the church did not yet exist. Young’s missionary work and leadership, both before and during his time as church president, played an important role in the growth and prosperity of the Mormon community. Seventy years after Young’s death in 1877, church membership had reached one million. Young also was largely responsible for the colonization of Utah, which became the 45th state of the United States in 1896.

Young was born on June 1, 1801, in Whitingham, Vermont. The founder of Mormonism, Joseph Smith, also was born in Vermont, in 1805. As children, both Young and Smith moved with their families to New York, where Young eventually would learn about the Mormon faith. Young spent his earliest years on his family’s farm. He attended only about 12 days of school. As a young man, Young worked as a carpenter, glazier, and painter. In 1830, Joseph Smith published the Book of Mormon and founded the Church of Christ (later the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints) in New York. Young, at that time a Methodist, read the Book of Mormon soon after its publication and became interested in Smith’s teachings. In 1832, after a period of thoughtful investigation, he converted to Smith’s faith, the start of a journey that would span the rest of his life.

Young soon demonstrated his dedication to his adopted religion. In 1832, he went to Canada as a missionary. In 1833, he joined a Mormon settlement at Kirtland, Ohio. And in 1834, he traveled with a group to Jackson County, Missouri, to try to take back Mormon lands from hostile non-Mormons. In 1835, Young was made an apostle of the church, one of 12 central church leaders. In 1837, the Kirtland settlement broke up. The next year, Young moved to Missouri, where Smith had gone. But further anti-Mormon sentiment there resulted in the arrest of Smith and other church leaders. Young then led thousands of Mormons to Illinois, where they established a community at Nauvoo. In the early 1840’s, Young worked as a missionary overseas in England, and at home in New England. He had great success, converting many people in England and arranging for them to migrate to the United States. In 1841, Smith made Young president of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, the governing body of the Mormon church.

Smith was killed by a mob in Illinois in 1844, and Young in effect became head of the church. In 1846, facing yet more anti-Mormon sentiment in Illinois, Young led his followers on a long journey west. They settled in the Great Salt Lake Valley in what is now Utah in 1847, and Young formally was elected president of the church. Under Young’s leadership, the Mormons prospered in Utah. The U.S. government established the Territory of Utah in 1850 and made Young its first governor. In 1858, following a conflict with the U.S. government, Young stepped down as governor. But he remained an extremely powerful man in Utah until his death on Aug. 29, 1877.

Critics have accused Young of intolerance to opposition. Many people opposed his practice of polygyny (having multiple wives at once). But Young’s leadership and pioneering efforts rank him as a great colonizer of the American West and as the architect of a firmly rooted Mormon community. Mormon history records that Young brought 100,000 people to the mountain valleys, founded hundreds of settlements, and established many schools and factories. A statue of Young represents Utah in Statuary Hall in the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C. Regarding his own reputation, Young has been quoted as saying, “I care nothing about my character in this world. I do not care what men say about me. I want my character to stand fair in the eyes of my Heavenly Father.”

Margot Fonteyn Was Born in 1919

Ballet dancers Rudolf Nureyev & Margot Fonteyn dan

© Zoe Dominic, Time & Life Pictures/Getty Images

Margot Fonteyn, the greatest British ballerina of the 1900’s, was born on just over a week ago today on May 18, 1919. For more than two decades, she was probably the most famous and successful ballerina in the world, celebrated for her technique, her poise, and the radiance of her character portrayals.

Fonteyn starred in the great classical repertoire, triumphing in such ballets as Giselle, Swan Lake, and The Sleeping Beauty. Perhaps her signature role was Princess Aurora in The Sleeping Beauty. Fonteyn also danced in major ballets by such modern choreographers as Roland Pettit, Ninette De Valois, and especially Frederick Ashton. She and Ashton established a refined form of dancing that became known as the British style. In 1962, Fonteyn joined Russian dancer Rudolph Nureyev to form a celebrated partnership that extended her fame beyond the world of ballet.

Fonteyn was born in Reigate, England, as Margaret Evelyn Hookam. She began taking dancing lessons at the age of 4. Early in her career she changed her name, adapting Margaret to Margot and her grandfather’s last name of Fontes into Fonteyn. In 1928, she moved with her family to China and continued her dance training in Shanghai. Fonteyn returned to England in 1933 and joined the Sadler’s Wells School in London in 1934. The school eventually became the Vic-Wells Ballet, the Sadler’s Wells Ballet, and eventually, the Royal Ballet. Fonteyn was a guest artist with ballet companies throughout the world, but the Royal Ballet remained her artistic home until her death.

Fonteyn made her performing debut in 1934 as a snowflake in the ballet The Nutcracker. By the age of 16, she was dancing featured roles. While she was well known in the English dance world, Fonteyn did not gain international stardom until 1949, when she made a triumphant American debut in The Sleeping Beauty at the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City. She was extremely popular in the United States for the rest of her career. During the 1940’s and 1950’s, Fonteyn was frequently partnered with Robert Helpmann, a dancer with a powerful personality who perfectly complemented her grace and lyricism.

Fonteyn was made a Dame Commander of the British Empire (D.B.E.) in 1956. She was president of the Royal Academy of Dancing from 1954 until her death. Her memoir, Margot Fonteyn: Autobiography, was published in 1977. In 1979, Queen Elizabeth II awarded Fonteyn the title of Prima ballerina assoluta, an honor reserved for only the most exceptional prima ballerinas. Fonteyn died on Feb. 21, 1991.

This Week in History: Mary Kay Ash was born in 1918


© Tommy Hultgren, AP Photo

American cosmetics entrepreneur Mary Kay Ash was born on May 12, 1918. Mary Kay, as she was commonly known, founded the multibillion-dollar cosmetics empire Mary Kay Inc. She built her business from humble beginnings in a tiny storefront in Dallas, Texas, into a global enterprise with an independent sales force in more than 35 countries.

Mary Kathlyn Wagner was born in Hot Wells, Texas. She married Julius Ben Rogers at age 17, and they had three children. In 1939, when few married women with children worked outside the home, Mary Kay became a salesperson for Stanley Home Products, a direct sales company. She demonstrated Stanley products at home parties hosted by other housewives as a way to generate sales for herself.

In 1952, Mary Kay began working in sales for World Gift Company in Dallas. When her second husband, George Hallenback, died suddenly, Mary Kay struck out on her own to make a living. She started her dream company, Beauty by Mary Kay, a direct sales cosmetics business, with a $5,000 investment and the help of her 20-year-old son, Richard Rogers. She bought her original formulas for skin lotions from the family of an Arkansas tanner and opened her first store with five products and nine salespeople. A tanner is a person who makes hides into leather by soaking them in a special liquid made from tree bark.

Much like in her early sales career, Mary Kay’s company sold cosmetics through at-home parties and other events. The sellers bought their cosmetics from her at wholesale prices and sold them directly to customers at retail prices. By the end of its second year, Mary Kay Cosmetics, as it was then called, had sold about $800,000 in products. In 1966, Mary Kay married Melville Jerome Ash, a salesman. Their marriage lasted until his death in 1980.

Mary Kay began her cosmetics business as a way to provide opportunities for women to help support their families and achieve success in a business career. Her slogan—“God first, family second, career third”—stressed that women should keep a balance in their lives. She became known for her love of the color pink and packaged her products with the color theme, which is still used in the company’s packaging today. Mary Kay annually rewarded her top directors with the use of a pink Cadillac (an American luxury automobile). She also drove a pink Cadillac herself and built a vast pale pink mansion in Dallas.

Mary Kay’s deep Christian beliefs guided her personal life as well as her business career. She believed in praising people as a way of helping them to achieve success and awarded successful sales directors with jewelry, vacations, and other rewards. Today, Mary Kay Inc. is a global corporation that makes more than 200 skincare and makeup products, which are sold by millions of independent beauty consultants worldwide.

Mary Kay’s success won her numerous awards. She also wrote several books, including three best sellers: Miracles Happen (2003), an autobiography first published as Mary Kay in 1981; Mary Kay: You Can Have It All (1995); and The Mary Kay Way (1984 and 2008). Mary Kay helped run her empire until she suffered a stroke in 1996. She died on Nov. 22, 2001.

This Week in History: American Journalist Nellie Bly Was Born


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“I was too impatient to work at the usual duties assigned women on newspapers.”

—Nellie Bly, Six Months In Mexico, 1888

At a time when women who worked at newspapers were writing articles on fashion, gardening, or society, intrepid American journalist Nellie Bly was traveling the world, reporting from the front lines, going undercover, and gaining fame for her daredevil feats and bold exposés in what was then considered a “man’s job.” A pioneer of investigative journalism, Bly wrote for several newspapers on many controversial issues, often focusing on the plight of the poor, immigrants, and women in America.

Nellie Bly was the pen name of Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman. She was born on May 5, 1864, in Cochran’s Mills, Pennsylvania, near Pittsburgh. The town was named for her father, Judge Michael Cochran. Her birth name was Elizabeth Cochran, but she later added an e to her last name. Judge Cochran died when Elizabeth was 3 years old. Her mother later remarried an abusive man whom she divorced. In 1880, Elizabeth moved with her family to Pittsburgh.

At the age of 20, Elizabeth read an editorial in The Pittsburgh Dispatch entitled “What Girls Are Good For.” The article admonished women for attempting to pursue an education or a career and suggested that a woman’s place was in the home. This so infuriated Elizabeth that she wrote a letter to the paper’s editor in support of women’s rights. She signed it “Little Orphan Girl.” The Dispatch’s editor, George Madden, was so impressed by the letter that he placed an ad for the Little Orphan Girl to visit the newspaper. When Elizabeth introduced herself to Madden, he offered her an opportunity to write a rebuttal piece to be published. Elizabeth’s first newspaper article was “The Girl Puzzle.” Madden offered Elizabeth a full-time job as a reporter. He gave her the pen name “Nellie Bly” a misspelling of the song “Nelly Bly” by the American composer Stephen Foster. While at the Dispatch, Nellie Bly wrote a series of stories about the lives of women who worked in Pittsburgh’s bottle factories. Although the stories captivated readers, they drew ire from the business community. Bly was then assigned to a gardening story. She turned in the article, along with her resignation.

Bly then traveled to Mexico, where she spent nearly half a year reporting on the lives and customs of the country’s people. Her dispatches were later published in book form as Six Months in Mexico. In one report, she protested the imprisonment of a local journalist for criticizing the country’s dictatorship government. When Mexican authorities learned of Bly’s report, they threatened her with arrest and she left the country.

In 1887, Bly, penniless, arrived in New York City, New York, where she talked her way into a job at the New York World. Later that year, she pretended to be insane to get inside a New York City mental hospital. Her articles “Behind Asylum Bars” and “Inside The Mad-House” caused an uproar in New York. Her reports of cruelty to patients brought reforms. In February 1889, Bly pretended to be a thief and got arrested so that she could learn how the police treated women prisoners.

Sometimes Bly herself made headlines for her daring feats. In November 1889, Bly sailed from New York City on a trip around the world. The New York World sent her to outdo Phileas Fogg, the hero of Jules Verne’s novel Around the World in Eighty Days. She made the trip—by ship, train, jinrikisha (handcart), and burro—in a record 72 days 6 hours 11 minutes.

In 1895, Bly married industrialist Robert Seaman. When he died in 1904, Bly took over the company and became the world’s leading female industrialist. However, a decade later, the company was forced into bankruptcy. Around this time Bly began working for the New York Evening Journal, where she became America’s first female war correspondent, writing articles on her experiences from the front lines during World War I (1914-1918). Bly wrote a column for the Journal until her death on Jan. 27, 1922, from pneumonia. The next day, the Journal carried a tribute to Bly, declaring her “The best reporter in America.”

This Week in History: Romulus and Remus Founded Rome in 753 B.C.


Relief on a Roman altar (A.D. 124); Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome (photo by Raymond V. Schoder)

According to legend, the twin brothers Romulus and Remus founded the city of Rome on April 21, 753 B.C., near the Tiber River in central Italy. Romulus and Remus were born in the ancient Italian city of Alba Longa. Their parents were Rhea Silvia, a human woman, and the god Mars. When Romulus and Remus were babies, their great uncle Amulius, the ruler of Alba Longa, had them thrown into the Tiber River so they could not threaten his rule. The twins washed ashore and were nursed by a female wolf. Wolves are associated with the god Mars. The twins later were discovered and raised by a shepherd named Faustulus and his wife. Romulus and Remus eventually set out to establish their own city at the place where the wolf had found them. A quarrel between the brothers led to Remus’s death, and Romulus named the new city Rome, after himself. Romulus became the first of seven legendary kings who ruled Rome until the founding of the Roman Republic in 509 B.C. He was a wise and popular ruler and a fine military leader. Under Romulus’s leadership, Rome expanded and became the most powerful city in the region. At the end of his reign, Romulus disappeared mysteriously in a storm. A later story tells that he became the god Quirinus.

Ancient Romans celebrated an important religious festival called Lupercalia every February near the Lupercal, a cave in the Palatine Hill. This cave was associated with the wolf that nursed Romulus and Remus. The Palatine Hill is one of seven historic hills east of the Tiber River in Rome. They form the heart of the ancient city. The other six hills are the Aveline, Caelian, Capitoline, Esquiline, Quirinal, and Viminal hills. Lupercalia included banquets, dancing, and the sacrificing of goats. Teams of young men called Luperci raced naked around the Palatine Hill with whips made from goats’ hides. Women who hoped to have children stood near the runners’ path to be struck by the whips. They believed this would make them fertile.

There is little evidence that Romulus and the six kings who succeeded him existed. Some scholars think the kings originated as gods whom the Romans converted into historical figures. The kings and gods have many similarities. For example, Romulus resembles the god Jupiter. The seventh king, Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, resembles Mars. Archaeologists have discovered the remains of houses built about 900 B.C.—approximately 150 years before the legendary founding date—on the Palatine Hill. The earliest settlers in the area were a people called the Latins who inhabited neighboring towns in Latium, the region around Rome. The seven hills that comprised ancient Rome were steep and easily defended. The valleys between them were fertile, with a good water supply, and provided necessary building materials. The Tiber River provided a convenient route to the Mediterranean Sea, allowing for trade with other communities. These geographical features helped the young city prosper and eventually develop as the center of a great empire. Whether or not Romulus and Remus had any part in this history, they remain a prominent part of Roman mythology. A famous bronze sculpture at the Capitoline Museums in Rome shows a she-wolf nursing the brothers. The sculpture is thought to have been created in the 400’s B.C. or in the Middle Ages (from about the 400’s through the 1400’s A.D.).


This week in history: Cuban exiles attacked the Bay of Pigs in Cuba in 1961


Cuban leader Fidel Castro, lower right, sits inside a tank near Playa Giron, Cuba, during the Bay of Pigs invasion, in this April 17, 1961 photo provided by Granma, the Cuban government newspaper. About 1,500 Cuban exiles, supported by the CIA, landed in Cuba in the Bahia de Cochinos (Bay of Pigs) on April 17, 1961 with the purpose of sparking a popular uprising and ousting the government of Cuban leader Fidel Castro. Most rebels were quickly captured or killed by the Cuban armed forces (©CP Photo/AP Photo)

On April 17-19, 1961, Cuban exiles supported by the United States government invaded Cuba’s Bay of Pigs in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro’s revolutionary government. This historical event is in sharp contrast with a recent visit by U.S. President Barack Obama to Cuba on March 20-22, 2016, nearly 55 years later. Obama met with Cuban President Raúl Castro and with dissident leaders and even attended a baseball game. The visit marked slowly warming relations between the two countries. Such a scenario would have been unimaginable in 1961!

Preparation for the Bay of Pigs invasion began in 1960, when the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) set up camps to train Cuban exiles in Guatemala. The exiles planned to land on Cuba’s southern coast, advance into Cuban territory, and establish a non-Communist provisional government. They anticipated support from Cuba’s people and members of its military. The original plan also included two air strikes by disguised B-26 bomber planes to destroy Cuban air bases, and the landing in eastern Cuba of a smaller invading force to confuse the Cubans. The U.S. government tried to conceal the plan, but news of the imminent attack circulated among Cuban exiles in Miami. Fidel Castro learned of the existence of the Guatemalan training camps through Cuban intelligence. In addition, U.S. media reported on the training camps in Guatemala, compromising the secrecy of the operation.

On April 17, 1961, about 1,400 Cuban exiles comprising Brigade 2506 landed at Playa Girón and Playa Larga, two beaches on Cuba’s southern coast near the Bay of Pigs. The area around the landing sites was swampy, which made it difficult for them to establish a foothold. Bad weather and soggy equipment presented further obstacles. In addition, the landing site was over 80 miles (130 kilometers) from Cuba’s Escambray Mountains, a potential refuge should the operation go awry. The invaders soon came under attack by Cuban planes and about 20,000 Cuban troops. The invasion ended on April 19, after more than 1,100 members of Brigade 2506 were captured. More than 100 members died in battle. Some escaped to Cuba’s interior to join anti-Castro guerrilla groups. The Cuban government never has revealed exactly how many Cuban troops died in the invasion. After the exiles’ capture, the United States began negotiations with Cuba to secure their release. In December 1962, the Cuban government freed the exiles in return for baby food and medicine worth $53 million.

The Bay of Pigs invasion is regarded as one of the worst foreign policy blunders of U.S. President John F. Kennedy’s administration. It led to a widespread crackdown on political opponents of Cuba’s government and solidified Castro’s control of the nation. Historians believe that poor planning and the U.S. government’s failure to provide air support for the rebels led to their defeat. For example, on April 15, exile pilots flying B-26 bombers provided by the CIA failed in an attempt to destroy the Cuban air force. Photos of the attacking bombers revealed that they were American, and President Kennedy canceled the second planned air strike on Cuban air bases. An attempt on April 19 by unmarked U.S. fighter planes to help the exile brigade’s B-26 bombers also failed. In addition, Castro’s government had arrested many of its opponents in Cuba so they would not be able to join the attack.

This Week in History: Booker T. Washington Was Born in 1856


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Booker T. Washington was the most influential African American leader and educator in the United States during his time. He is best known as the founder of what is now Tuskegee University in Tuskegee, Alabama.

Booker Taliaferro Washington was born a slave on April 5, 1856, on a small plantation in Hales Ford, Virginia, near Roanoke. His father was a white man, whom Washington never knew, and his mother, Jane, was a cook for the plantation owner. After the boy’s birth, Jane married Washington Ferguson, another slave, and her son later took his stepfather’s first name as his last name.

In 1865, Washington was 9 years old when the U.S. government freed all the slaves in the United States. Soon after, he, his mother, and two siblings moved to Malden, West Virginia, to join his stepfather, who had gone there to work in the salt mines. The family set up their first home as free people. Although Washington was still a child, he went to work in the salt and coal mines instead of going to school. But in his spare time, he taught himself to read and write.

Washington went to work as a houseboy for the wife of the coal mine owner. She allowed him to attend school, but only for an hour a day during the winter months. Washington left home at the age of 16 and walked some 500 miles to attend an industrial school for blacks—the Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute (now Hampton University)—in Hampton, Virginia. He graduated with high marks from Hampton in 1875 and was given the honor of speaking at his commencement. He returned to Hampton as a teacher in 1879. Washington based many of his theories about education, moral values, and hard work on his training at Hampton.

In 1881, Washington founded Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute, a vocational school for blacks, in an old, abandoned shanty. He ran Tuskegee for the rest of his life. He traveled throughout the United Sates to promote and raise money for the school. The school’s name was later changed to Tuskegee Institute, and finally, to Tuskegee University. Tuskegee educated students in carpentry, farming, and mechanics. The school also trained teachers. Washington believed that blacks needed a practical, vocational education rather than a college education. He felt blacks should learn skills, work hard, and acquire property. This, he believed, could lead blacks out of poverty into economic prosperity.

Under Washington’s leadership, Tuskegee rose to national prominence, and Washington rose in prominence as a national spokesman for black people. Washington became the first black person to dine at the White House. He advised both U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt and President William Howard Taft on racial issues and policies, as well as on political appointments for blacks in a time of rigid segregation and discrimination in much of the United States, especially the South.

Washington advised blacks to stop demanding equal rights and to just get along with whites in order to benefit economically. He believed that blacks should be subordinate to whites and that if they were patient, worked hard, and became financially independent, they would eventually win acceptance and respect from whites. His beliefs and practices created a firestorm in the black community. His strongest critic was the historian and sociologist W.E.B. Du Bois, who believed that blacks could benefit from a college education. Du Bois attacked Washington’s views about making compromises and his acceptance of inequality and segregation to achieve economic gain. Du Bois outlined his criticisms in his book The Souls of Black Folk (1903).

Washington wrote many books, including his best-selling autobiography, Up from Slavery (1901). He died on Nov. 14, 1915, of congestive heart failure and exhaustion at age 59. Nearly 8,000 people attended his funeral at Tuskegee. Washington was laid to rest in a brick tomb built by students on a hill overlooking the campus. At the time of his death, Tuskegee had expanded to more than 100 buildings, where a faculty of 200 taught dozens of trades. The school had built up a $2-million endowment and enrolled more than 1,500 students.